Report Archive | 2015

Scenarios for deployment of hydrogen in meeting carbon budgets

This report describes two scenarios for the use of hydrogen across the UK energy sector to 2050. E4tech developed the scenarios for the UK Climate Change Committee (CCC) to help them advise the UK government on policy options for decarbonisation. The scenarios consider the technology developments, infrastructure requirements, business model needs and energy systems implications of conversion to hydrogen, and were informed by modelling by UCL using the UKTM energy systems model, and Kiwa Gastec’s practical experience in hydrogen projects.

In the Critical Path scenario, hydrogen makes a significant contribution to decarbonisation in 2050 but is not dominant, while in Full Contribution scenario hydrogen makes a central contribution to meeting 2050 targets, including through conversion of the natural gas grid to 100% hydrogen. The report concludes that hydrogen could help the UK decarbonise by 2050, but would require strong support, starting now. The modelling also highlights areas for consideration in developing strategies for hydrogen roll-out, and actions that are required in both the short and medium term to support the two scenarios.

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Liquid air on the European highway

E4tech were closely involved in the analysis underlying this report, which analyses the economic and environmental impact of zero-emission transport refrigeration. The report outlines the extensive use of transport refrigeration in today’s society, and the pollution that these vehicles cause, proposing liquid air-fuelled transport refrigeration units as a preferable alternative. The costs, environmental benefits and infrastructure impacts of using liquid air transport refrigeration units are modelled in detail.

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Doing cold smarter

This report lays out the need, opportunity and enabling technologies for provision of ‘clean cold’, and presents a consensus roadmap for UK innovation in cold technologies. Key steps towards a smart cold economy are presented, suggesting which interventions may be required and expected impacts of these, along with potential stakeholders in the roadmap. E4tech contributed to this report by facilitating workshops and shaping the roadmap.

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Support Schemes for Biofuels – EU Overview

In April 2015 E4tech’s Senior Consultant Brian Denvir conducted a workshop on the role of biofuels in meeting the renewable energy obligations of the Energy Community. The workshop was a part of the Energy Community Secretariat’s annual meeting on the promotion of renewable energy within the Contracting Parties of the Energy Community (Albania, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Kosovo, FYR of Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Serbia, Ukraine). Brian discussed the status of biofuels in the region and examined how renewable fuels have been supported historically in various EU Member States.

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Potential low carbon fuel supply to the Pacific Coast region of North America

Pacific-NW_coast_studyThis study by E4tech and ICCT investigated the potential to meet the fuel carbon goals for four jurisdictions of the Pacific Coast region, simultaneously. California’s Low Carbon Fuel Standard, British Columbia’s Low Carbon Fuel requirements and Oregon and Washington’s proposed Clean Fuel Standards all seek to reduce the carbon intensity of transport fuels over time. The study presents eight scenarios with varying amounts of low carbon fuels that could be used to meet the fuel requirements in the different jurisdiction, concluding that the fuel targets could be met by a variety of combinations of conventional and advanced biofuels and electric and natural gas vehicles, without the need for any dramatic breakthrough in any one particular technology.

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From the Sugar Platform to Biofuels and Biochemicals

ECSugarsCoverNumerous potential pathways to biofuels and biochemicals exist via the sugar platform. This study uses literature surveys, market data and stakeholder input to provide a comprehensive evidence base for policymakers and industry–identifying the key benefits and development needs for the sugar platform.

The study created a company database for 94 sugar-based products, with some already commercial, the majority at research/pilot stage ,and only a few demonstration plants crossing the “valley of death”.

Case studies describe the value proposition, market outlook and EU activity for ten value chains (acrylic, adipic & succinic acids, FDCA, BDO, farnesene, isobutene, PLA, PHAs and PE). Most can deliver significant greenhouse savings and drop-in (or improved) properties, but at an added cost to fossil alternatives.

Whilst significant progress has been made, research barriers remain around lignocellulosic biomass fractionation, product separation energy, biological inhibition, chemical selectivity and monomer purity, plus improving whole chain process integration.

An assessment of EU competitiveness highlights strengths in R&D, but a lack of strong commercial activity, due to the US, China and Brazil having more attractive feedstock and investment conditions. Further policy development, in particular for biochemicals, will be required to realise a competitive European sugar-based bioeconomy.

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Overview of the ETI’s Bioenergy Value Chain Model (BVCM) capabilities

BVCMreportThe Bioenergy Value Chain Model (BVCM) is a comprehensive and flexible toolkit for the modelling and optimisation of full-system bioenergy value chains over the next five decades. It has been designed to answer variants of the question:

What is the most effective way of delivering a particular bioenergy outcome in the UK, taking into account the available biomass resources, the geography of the UK, time, technology options and logistics networks?

The toolkit supports analysis and decision-making around optimal land use, biomass utilisation and different pathways for bioenergy production. It does this by optimising on an economic, emissions or energy production basis, or with these objectives in combination.

The report provides an overview of the BVCM toolkit, and is intended as background reading for those who are interested in knowing more about how the tool works, its architecture and functionalities.

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