E4tech supported EU Directorate General for Energy (DG ENER) in evaluating the impact of different EU bioenergy policy scenarios on global greenhouse gas emissions. Based on recent research works such as the BioImpact and Recebio projects, E4tech analysed the key elements in EU bioenergy policies (e.g. sustainability criteria, forest management constraints, inclusion targets) that would have the biggest impact on greenhouse gas emissions in EU and worldwide, as well as related impacts on natural resources (e.g. forests and agricultural lands) and selected economic sectors (bioenergy, pulp & paper, construction, etc.). We also evaluated the need, feasibility, and potential impacts of end-use efficiency criteria for biomass in heat and power in addition to existing EU energy efficiency measures. Finally, we assessed the environmental desirability and practical feasibility of a negative list of biomass feedstocks, building on the existing EU biofuels sustainability framework (Annex IX). As a result, E4tech provided the Commission with detailed guidance and clarifications regarding future policy developments.