Our client, a global automotive manufacturer, approached us to better understand the challenges and business opportunities in the vehicle-to-grid (V2G) and demand-side response markets in Europe. We provided them with an overview of relevant actors, policies and competing technologies. We also conducted an in-depth assessment of the returns available to vehicle owners participating in frequency response services to National Grid and in arbitrage via vehicle-to-home. To this end we analysed second-by-second grid frequency data in SQL and created an arbitrage model taking into account the state of charge and size of the vehicle battery pack. The project provided our client with valuable insights that helped shape their commercial strategy in the V2G and demand-side response market.